Siah Cheshmeh is one of the cities of Chaldoran county in West Azerbaijan province located in the northwest of the country. A part of the common border between Iran and Turkey is placed in Chaldoran county. The distance of Siah Cheshmeh to Urmia, the capital city of West Azerbaijan province, in more than 200km.
People of Siah Cheshmeh speak in Azerbaijan Turkish language and they are mostly occupied with agriculture and animal husbandry. The old name of this city was Qareh Eyni. Its name was turned into Siah Cheshmeh during Pahlavi and after the Iran revolution the name of Chaldoran was chosen for this county. Chaldoran is the name of a plain between the old Qareh Eyni and the border of Turkey where the Chaldoran battle between Iran and Ottoman was taken place in this region in Safavid period. Iran failed the battle against Ottoman and consequently some parts of the country were separated.
Qareh Kelisa or the St. Thaddeus Monastery is the main tourism attraction of the region located in 20km northeast of Siah Chashmeh. Qareh Kelisa is one of the oldest churches in Iran. Based upon some historians the date of constructing this church backs to the early Christian period. This church was extremely ruined during the Mogul attack and it was reconstructed in time of Nasir al-Din al-Tusi through his proceedings. It was destroyed again in 14th century in effect of an earthquake and later rebuilt. Some parts were added to the building during Qajar period; these new sections are visible with the white stones and picturesque carvings influenced by the Etchmiadzin Cathedral in Armenia.
The annual Armenian gathering in the late of Tir or the early Mordad is held in this place and many Armenians come here from different parts of Iran and around the world. Qareh Kelisa along with the St. Stepanos Monastery and Chapel of Dzordzor were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1387 S.H.
Sheikh Sadr al-Din Mausoleum, the minister of Shah Ismail I, is also placed here in Saih Cheshmeh and considered to be one of the historical monuments of this city. He was killed during Chaldoran battle.
Arab Dizaj waterfall in 40km northwest of Siah Cheshmeh is among the natural tourism attractions of the region located near to a village with the same name. Navar lagoon is the other attraction which is the host of many migratory birds each year in the beginning of the spring.
Weaving carpet, kilim, Zilu, Jajim, Khorjin, felting and handmade textile are among the handicrafts of people in this region.