Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province (Persian: استان چهارمحال و بختیاری, [Chahār Mahāl and Bakhtīārī]) is located in the southwest of Iran among Zāgros Mountain Range. These mountains are the main source of water for rivers, springs and underground water reserves. Two large rivers of Kārūn and Zāyande-Rūd originate from the mountains of this province. The climate and geographical features have made this land a perfect place for nomad life, especially in its western parts. Nomads look for fresh pastures, because their economy is based on husbandry. The people who live in the eastern parts of the province are mostly farmers. The plant cover of this region includes forests and lawns. The forests are mainly located in Bāzaft, Lordegān, Ardal, Dūrhān and Falārd regions.
Music and poetry are the most ways of entertainment in nomad’s everyday life. The musical pieces of Bakhtiari tribes are known as Beit. The local musicians are called Toshomāli. Musical instruments include Kornā, Persian oboe, reed, drums and dulcimer.
On the special occasions, men and women dance together. They have different kinds of dances which are called Arūsi, Dastmāl, Ārām, Tond and Mojasameh. Common handicrafts of this province are carpet weaving, felt making, hat making, drugget weaving, coarse blanket weaving and lock making. The ethnic groups of the residents of this province are Ghashghāīs, Bakhtīārī Lurs and Persians. Each group speaks its own language.
This historical Tunnel is located near Chelgard. It was created to link the water resources of Kūhrang to the Zāyande-Rūd River. Some historians believe this tunnel was built during the Sassanid era in 3rd and 4th centuries C.E., but others believe it was built by Shāh Abbās I of the Safavid dynasty (1501-1722).
Alternatively called Sūlejān, the lagoon is a natural habitat for different species of birds and encompasses an area of 8 square kilometers with a changing depth of about one meter.
This lagoon which is one of the largest and most beautiful lagoons of the province encompasses an area of 2300 hectares with a depth of 1.5 meters. Kelār Mountains is situated in the southwest of this lagoon, which bestows a unique beauty to the sceneries of the area. It has a humid climate with temperate summers and cold winters.
Sardāb and Deimeh Springs
Sardāb Spring is located near Sarāb region and Deimeh Spring lies near Chergerd area. Because of high mountains and heavy snow and rainfalls, many springs flow throughout this province.
Ātashgāh, literally meaning fire-place, is a village located 40 km from the city of Lordegān in a narrow valley with fascinating natural features. Fast flowing rivers and uneven ground have created many large and small falls all through the 3 km length of this village. Although this region has a temperate climate, the air in the valley is really cool and refreshing.
These species of plants are only found in Zāgros Mountain Range with red and yellow colors which have increased the beauty of this area.
This resort which is rich in lawn and springs is located near the town of Fārsān and is a suitable place for tourists to spend their time relaxing and visiting different sights.
Stone Lion Statues
In Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province, especially among the Bakhtīārī tribes, there is a tradition of using a stone lion as the gravestone for heroes and fallen soldiers. Weapons like swords, arrows, etc. would be also carved on the graves.
Āghā Seyed and Deh Cheshmeh Caves
As there are many limestone mountains, we can see quite a lot of caves in this area. Springs naturally flow from many of them. In Pīrgar cave which has not been fully explored, there are 10 flowing springs. The most important cave of this province is called Āghā Seyed Īsā in Bīdgol which is accessible from Fārsān town. This is a long narrow cave with a small lake in the middle. Local people respect this cave as a holy place.