Hamedan Province (Persian: استان همدان, [Hamadān]) is located in the western areas of Iran. Mount Alvand with a height of 3574 meters above the sea level is located to the south and southwest of Hamadān City.
The altitude of this province and its location at the foothills of the Zagros and Alvand mountains leads to heavy rain and snowfall. This has caused many water springs to flow through this land.
These features have made this land rich in lawns and have made it an ideal place for nomad life and cattle breeding. Therefore, the economy in this province is primarily based on farming and husbandry, then on mining activities. People of Hamedan are from different races and speak Persian, Azari, Luri and Kurdish. These people are famous for their artistic taste. Common handicrafts in this province include pottery, carpet weaving, shoe making and tannery.
Hamadān is the connecting joint between eastern and western main roads of Iran. The oldest objects of ancient Iranian civilizations have been discovered in this land. Professor Ghirshman, a famous French archaeologist, has proved that civilization of Hamedan dates back to 37 centuries B.C.
The Mausoleum of Avicenna
Also known by his Latinized name Avicenna (980-1037 CE) is a famous Iranian scientist, philosopher, physician. His mausoleum is located in Hamadān City in a land with an area of 3090 square meters. The structure is similar to the great tower of Gonbad Kavus with some small modifications. Materials used in this structure are bricks, concrete and stone. There are two gravestones in the structure. One of them belongs to Ibn Sina and the other one belongs to Abu Saeed Akhook. This is a square tower with a dome on top and a height of 28.5 meters to the street level.
This cave which is one of the most beautiful natural phenomena in Iran is located 80 kilometers north of Hamadān City at the foothills of Sūbāshī Mountain. There is a large lake which has been formed by joining currents of water inside the cave. There are also numerous stalagmites and stalactites which have bestowed a unique beauty to the cave.
The most brilliant handicraft of this province is pottery, tile and ceramic making. The center of these activities is the town of Lālehjīn located 30 kilometers from the city of Hamadān. It is almost 7 centuries old. There are 700 active workshops and 10 to 15 percent of the products are used in the province and the rest are exported to other provinces and countries.
Nūshījān Fire Temple
This fire temple is located 60 kilometers south of Hamadān and 20 kilometers west of Malāyer. Archaeological studies revealed the domination of three different dynasties: The Medians, Achaemenids and Parthians. It was built during the Medians era in 8 century BC. The temple which was used for indoor worshipping and prayers consists of a fireplace, central part, rooms, tunnels, warehouses and a castle.
Esther and Mordecai Tomb
This structure, which is made of brick and stone, is similar to buildings of Islamic era. It is located in the city center of Hamadān. This is the tomb of Esther, the queen of Susa, who was the wife of Ahasuerus (Xeroxes I) and Mordecai was her uncle. A memorial structure was built on their graves 11 centuries ago by the Jewish community. The present structure was built on the old one in 12th century C.E.
The Mausoleum of Bābā Tāher
Bābā Tāher, the great poet and mystic of the 9th century, is famous for his Do-Bayti (two-couplet) in the Luri dialect. His tomb is located on top of a hill northwest of Hamadān city. This structure was renovated during different dynasties. In 13th century CE, a hexagonal brick structure was built on his tomb. This new structure was also restored during the time of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925-1941).