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Damavand Mountain is the highest mountain of Iran and Middle East; it is the highest volcanic peak of Asia and the 19th tallest peak of the world.
The mountain is located in north of Iran at the central part of the Alborz Mountain range located on the south of the Caspian Sea. One can see the mountain from Tehran, Varamin, Qom and the Caspian Sea beach, given the weather is not foggy or polluted. Damavand is the symbol of stability in the Iranian culture and enjoys a good reputation in Persian literature and mythology.
The mountain was formed in the 4th geological period (Holocene Period); currently its volcanic activity is limited to sulfur gases sublimation.
Tineh River in the north, Haraz River in the south, Lar and Div-Asiab in the west and Panj-ou (Five Water) River in the east of the Damavand Mountain are flowing.
The weather temperature in the high altitude of the mountain is about 60 degrees below zero during winter time, it is one degree below zero in the summer; the air pressure in the peak of the mountain is half of the air pressure on the sea level.
Various and specific plants grow at the different heights of Damavand; there are various animals native to the area due to the special location of this region which is surrounded by forest from the north and has suborder with the desert from the south.
There is a frozen and unique waterfall in the south part of Damavand which never melts. The most important eastern glaciers of Alborz are located on the peak of Damavand. The image of Damavand Mountain has been published on Iran's official bank note.
Several climbers and visitors climb up to the mountain every year; it has been registered as national heritage and on hillside of the mountain Damavand Celebration is held on 4th of July.