World Craft City for Gemstones
  • Country
  • Province
    Khorasan Razavi
  • Population
  • Area
    126 km²
  • Time Zone


Mashhad is located in Kashafrud River catchment basin and at the end of the Mashhad sedimentary plain, between Hezar masjid and Binalood mountains range, at the height of 1050m above the sea level with a mountainous and semi mountainous area which presents a moderate and variable climate.

This city consists of three districts "Markazi", "Ahmad Abad" and "Razavi", three cities and 11 rural districts. Mashhad is considered as the 2nd biggest and the populous city of Iran after Tehran due to it is religious, industry and economic conditions. Mashhad is known as the most important attraction for the passengers who are willing to visit Imam Reza holy shrine (8th Shia Imam), the biggest holy shrine in Iran.

As one of the most magnificent religious places in Iran, Astan Qods Razavi is the symbol of Mashahd where the Islamic art and religion are linked to each other. Located along the Silk Road, it is the economic capital and the intercontinental commercial center in the Central Asia. Mashhad economic activities are dependent on the services, industry and agriculture; however, it is focused on a services-based economy due to the presence of the passengers and pilgrims who travel to there. About 40 percent of Mashhad industry is relied on the food, metal and handicraft industry. Most of Mashhad people are of Iranian Aryan race, although many Kurds, Turks and Arabs live there. Mashhad residents speak in Persian Language, Mashhadi accent and they are the followers of Ja'afari Shia.


Mashhad, World Craft City for Gemstones

Date of Registration: 2016

Mashhad metropolis, the capital of Khorasan-Razavi Province, and spiritual capital of Iran is located in north-east of the country on the ancient silk road.

 The most religious city of Iran is centered on the vast Holy Shrine of Imam Reza, eighth Shi'ite Imam. Imam Reza was buried in a village, which afterward gained the name “Mashhad”, meaning the place of martyrdom. As a place of religious pilgrimage, it hosts more than 20 million tourists every year. It was chosen as the 2017 Capital of Islamic Culture. With 3 million residents, Mashhad is the second biggest and second populated city of Iran. The area is famous for breeding many celebrities, literature and poets such as Ferdowsi. Mashhad’s climate is mild and dry.

Mashhad is also known for gemstones and it was included in WIPO since 2016. The area with 39 known different varieties of gemstone is rich enough to export gemstones to many other countries. More than 16 thousand registered artisans are busy in the field in nearly 500 different workshops. With 9 tons of exploitation a year, Agate (Aghigh) is the most popular gemstone, following by 5 tons of turquoise (Firouzeh). Different types of Corundum such as Sapphire or Ruby, Jasper, aquamarine are some other exploited gemstone products of Mashhad city.

Mashhad has about 90 percent of gemstone workshops of the country which produce jewelry in addition to religious accessories such as rosaries and rings.

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